Boy scouts in five continents
|Boy scouts in five continents
|A brief account of the extension
of the Boy Scout Mowement
with a Directory of the Member Associations
- Boken var i A6-format, mykperm og på 84 sider. 
|"Boy scouts in five continents"
|A brief account of the extension
of the Boy Scout Mowement
with a Directory of the Member Associations 
|Boy scouts in five continents
|H.F. Cockshott og Jack Trodd,
faksimile av navn på medlemsblader
|Staples Printers Ltd., Kent
It all began with a man camping on an island with twenty boys. That was in 1907, the man was Robert Baden-Powell, and the boys were the pioneer Boy Scouts. Thirty years later, when Baden-Powell had passed his eightieth birthday, he was speaking at the last International Conference he was to address. Looking back over the years, he said:
I want to remind you that all the steps in our history have been of automatic growth not merely the problems, but the steps in growth and development. For instance, you can remember that it was not I who urged Scouting to the boys. It was only suggested to me to write a book, and the boys took it up for themselves. I wrote a book for certain institutions for boys, but boys outside those institutions took up Scouting on their own account. It was an automatic growth. Then no propaganda was sent to foreign countries when we were busy with this Scouting at home, but within a very short time many countries took up Scouting, and now, before thirty years, countries over practically all the civilized world have taken up Scouting: another automatic growth. The whole thing is a natural growth, and therefore a natural movement and not an artificial organization made by rules and regulations. 
This "natural growth" is a characteristic feature of the spread of Scouting over the five continents. Each country has a different story to tell. In most, Scouting was introduced by some private citizen interested in the right training of boys. Perhaps he had visited England and had seen the enthusiasm of the boys themselves for this new method and he found by experiment that the boys of his own country were equally attracted by the same activities and methods. Someone else may have come across a copy of Scouting for Boys and, just like the first boyreaders, had been captivated by its unusual suggestions. Whatever the way in which Scouting came to a country, the same results were achieved; here was something that made an irresistible appeal to all boys to their love of the open-air and of camping, and to their longing for adventure in company with the members of their gangs. 
The piecemeal adoption of Scouting is one explanation of the existence of more than one Association in certain countries. Two or three men, quite unaware of what each was doing, may have started Troops without any idea of building up a national organization. Perhaps one Troop was attached to a parish church in one town, while another may have been open to all boys in another town far away. In time, the Troops of one religious denomination would tend to get together and the Scoutmasters would find it helpful to discuss common problems and experiences. So with the unattached Troops. Each group formed its own Association to draw up the rules for its management and organization. The common pattern was found in "Scouting for Boys". Much later came the idea of these Associations co-operating as a National Federation. 
As country after country adopted Scouting, it soon became clear that a new international movement was forming. At an early stage, Baden-Powell himself recognized the significance of what was happening, and he also saw the need for closer co-operation between the Scout countries. The link of common ideals, methods and activities was a strong one, but this association, he felt, could be further strengthened by personal contacts and consultation. In his view the most important step was to get the boys themselves together; experience had taught him that once the enthusiasm of the boys had found practical expression in camping and other outdoor pursuits, the adult leaders would come together in their turn. Nearly half-a-century of Scouting has proved that his emphasis on the need for the boys getting to know each other is the soundest foundation on which to build goodwill and understanding. 
The first International Commissioner
Baden-Powell appointed the first International Commissioner for Great Britain in 1911. He explained his purpose in these words: "The different foreign countries, some twelve there are which have adopted Scouting for their boys are now forming a friendly alliance with us for interchange of views, correspondence, and visits, and thereby to promote a closer feeling of sympathy between the rising generations. International peace can only be built on one foundation, and that is the international desire for peace on the part of the peoples themselves in such strength as to guide their governments." 
The war of 1914-18 postponed the development of this "friendly alliance". The good relations were, of course, maintained and even strengthened during this period of common effort, but anything more formal was not practicable. The First World Jamboree of 1920 is a milestone in the history of Scouting, second in importance only to that first camp at Brownsea Island. It demonstrated on a large scale the value of the Movement as a link between countries. The original intention was that this should be a rally of the Boy Scouts of Great Britain, the Dominions and the Colonies. At Baden-Powell's own insistence, Scouts of other countries were invited; the response was far greater than he, or any one else, had expected. They came from twentyone countries, and the public realized for the first time that, almost unheralded, a new international movement had come into being. The Jamboree had a twofold importance; there was the remarkable demonstration of unity and loyalty when the Scouts acclairkted Baden-Powell as Chief Scout of the World. Less spectacular, but of equal significance for the future, was the coming together of the leaders of the contingents for the first time in conference. 
An International Conference, they decided, should be held every two years, and an International Bureau should be at once established. Mr. F. F. Peabody of the United States of America provided the initial funds. A constitution was discussed at the next Conference in 1922 at Paris and adopted at the third Conference at Copenhagen in 1924. The scheme* then accepted remains, with some later modifications, in operation today. It should be clearly understood that this Conference is in no sense a legislative assembly, nor does it interfere with the management or organization of the Associations in member countries. Its purpose is to bring together the leaders of Scouting from all countries so that they can benefit by an exchange of views and of experience. 
- (Further details are given in the pamphlet "The Structure of World Scouting", International Bureau.
The Conference elects twelve of its members, from twelve different countries, to act on its behalf between Conferences. The members do not represent their individual countries; they represent the Conference and the general needs of the Movement wherever it is established. 
The Committee appoints the Director of the International Bureau and he is responsible for carrying out the policy of the Conference. The holders of this office up to the present are as follows:
- 1920-38 Hubert S. Martin, c.v.o., C.B.E.
- 1938-53 Col. J. S. Wilson, C.M.G., O.B.E.
- 1953- Maj.-Gen. D. C. Spry, C.B.E., D.S.O., C.D. 
The International Bureau
The Bureau has been in London since its formation in 1920. Its function is to strengthen by every practicable means the links that form the chain of Scouting from country to country. Each country has its own International Commissioner, and, where there are two or more Associations, the Federation has its own International Commissioner. These Commissioners are in touch with each other on matters concerning their own countries, but the Bureau gives considerable help in linking up one country with another. 
The Nine Links
What are the links that form this chain of Scouting? They are so many and varied that it is easy to overlook one or two. Some, not necessarily the most effective, make great public appeal, like a World Jamboree; others are being forged silently but are none the less strong for that; thus a Scout in Iceland writing a letter to a Scout in the U.S.A. is not an item of world news; but to those two boys it means a big thing—they become aware in a Practical fashion of the brotherhood to which both belong. A quick review cannot tell the whole story, but it is worth while noting the various ways in which this comradeship is promoted and strengthened.
1. World Jamborees
These are the most striking demonstrations of unity of which the public is aware. Scout World Jamborees are usually held every four years, though wars and other compelling causes may break the sequence.
- 1st 1920 LONDON (GREAT BRITAIN)
- 2nd 1924 COPENHAGEN (DENMARK)
- 3rd 1929 BIRKENHEAD (GREAT BRITAIN)
- 4th 1933 GODoLLo (HUNGARY)
- 5th 1937 VoGELENSANG (NETHERLANDS)
- 6th 1947 MOISSON (FRANCE)
- 7th 1951 BAD ISCHL (AUSTRIA)
- 8th 1955 NIAGARA (CANADA)
2. World Rover Moots As Rovers were a later development of Scouting for (...)